The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017. London, UK: CRC Press Inc., 296 pp, FAO EcoCrop, 2014. Scientific name is the name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). It has been speculated to originate from a district of Central America (Basu and De, 2003), or to have been domesticated in Mexico (Aguilar-Melendez et al., 2009). http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. California Wonder Pepper vegetable seeds are easy grow; just sow them in a sunny spot with well drained soil and enjoy a bountiful harvest. Risk of introduction for C. annuum has also been reported as very high due to the serious pests associated with the species; these pests are described further in the ‘Natural Enemies’ section. Phytophthora blight and crown rot (P. capsici), Cercospora leaf-spot (C. capsici), bacterial spot (Xanthomonas vesicatoria) and bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum) are other important diseases and are best controlled by integrated pest management, including resistant cultivars that may be available. There are few plants in the garden more satisfying to grow than bell peppers, one of the many types of peppers to fall under the scientific name Capsicum annuum. Preferred Scientific Name. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20123134730 doi:10.1079/9781845938253.0000, Brimer, L., 2011. Bell peppers, Capsicum annuum are a cultivar group of annual or perennial plants in the family Solanaceae grown for their edible fruits. Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc, Benefits from human association (i.e. Common Names - Capsicum, chili pepper, hot pepper, cayenne, red pepper, Tabasco paprika pepper, bell pepper, green pepper are some of the common names of sweet pepper. The number of global species within the Capsicum genus has long been subject to debate, with various authors ascribing 25 species to the genus, 33 by Morrison in 1680, 27 by Tournefort in 1700, 2 by Linnaeus in 1753, and 5 by Smith and Heiser (Basu and De, 2003). The main purpose of having a scientific name is to have a same name accepted and used worldwide. Fruits begin to mature 4-5 weeks after flowering, and can be picked in sequences of 5-7 days. Bell pepper, also known as sweet pepper, is one of the most commonly used chili peppers in the Capsicum annuum family and is native to Mexico and northern Latin America. Also called cherry pepper or bird's eye pepper; Conoides; fruits subconical, up to 3 cm long, very pungent. The common name of this plant in Spanish is Pimiento. Nature Genetics, 46(3):270-278, Kress WJ, Defilipps RA, Farr E, Kyi DYY, 2003. List of species of the Flora of Brazil (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil). Severe flooding or drought is injurious to most cultivars. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 DOI:10.1079/9781786392145.0000. In: Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 45 1-590. Vegetable production and practices, CABI.ix + 476 pp. A Global Compendium of Weeds. While bell peppers are classically considered a non-starchy vegetable, botanical definition classify them a fruit. It is known to have unintentionally escaped cultivation in Puerto Rico and Finland (Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Randall, 2012), and can be spread by both biotic and abiotic vectors, as the species can grow in sandy, coastal areas (Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014). Capsicum peppers were introduced to Asia in the sixteenth century by Portuguese and Spanish explorers via trade routes from South America. The alternating leaves are elliptical, smooth edged, and come to a distinct point. The species was observed in Bermuda by Britton in 1918, who reported it also present in tropical America and cited HB Small that it was “occasionally seen outside of plantations”. Production for home consumption and production for dried fruits constitute a significant part of the production in Asia. In Bolivia the species grows in rain forests, dry valleys, and mountain lowlands, and has been found at varying ranges of altitudes, 0-500, 1000–1500, 2000–2500, 3500–4000 m (Bolivia Checklist, 2014), while in Ecuador, the species grows in a variety of habitats in the Galapagos, Coastal, Andean, and Amazonian regions, at even higher altitudes of up to 3000 m (Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014). By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Common name: Capsicum, chili pepper, hot pepper, cayenne, red pepper, Tabasco paprika pepper, sweet pepper, bell pepper, green pepper Scientific name: Capsicum annuum, C. frutescens Family: Solanaceae Growth stages : Pests For weeds and diseases please see further down on this page. The top 20 pepper-producing countries grew 33.3 million tons of hot pepper in 2011, and within the last decade, world production of hot pepper has increased by 40% (FAO Statistics, 2014; Kim et al., 2014). Although Capsicum plants grow as a perennial shrub in suitable climatic conditions, they are usually cultivated as annuals elsewhere. As one of the first domesticated plants of Mesoamerica, Capsicum has been known since the beginning of civilization in the Western hemisphere and has been part of the human diet since 7500 BC. Abundant phosphorus and calcium is needed for the best results. All peppers are grown as green peppers or capsicum. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CV, Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador, Tropicos website. Scientific name is the name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). C. annuum is listed as a 'casual alien, cultivation escape, environmental weed, garden thug, naturalized, weed' in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). Likewise in Puerto Rico, Bello Espinosa (1881) did not report the species in his Flora of Puerto Rico, although C. baccatum was included. Capsicum peppers grow best on well-drained loamy soils at pH 5.5-6.8. Along with the scientific name and classification of Bell Pepper, know about other Bell Pepper Facts. The peak harvest period is 4-7 months after sowing, but perennial growth continues in the absence of frost or disease. The only capsicum without any capsaicin, and therefore no heat, is the bell pepper. It is the same variety but each of the colors (besides green) is a different cultivar. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. As most of these are polyphagous pests, control is difficult. China and Mexico have the largest area harvested. Most mammals find this unpleasant, whereas birds are unaffected. The Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar. Española de Hist. Capsicum annuum - Plants and Fungi, Science and Conservation page, Kew website. It has been widely cultivated around the world as a valuable food and medicinal plant (Basu and De, 2003; FAO EcoCrop, 2014). http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PEC, Randall RP, 2012. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. For rodents, snails and slugs please click here : St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Stem irregularly angular to subterete, up to 1 cm in diameter, much branched, often tomentose near branchings, green to brown-green, often with purplish spots near nodes.             Subphylum: Angiospermae,                 Class: Dicotyledonae,                     Order: Solanales,                         Family: Solanaceae,                             Genus: Capsicum,                                 Species: Capsicum annuum. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Call 1-800-345-5977. The scientific name of Banana Pepper is the botanical name or formal name. Flora of Bermuda. Serrano Pepper. Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador, Tropicos website., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Omissions? St. Louis, MO and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Most varieties that are bred for ornamental use hold their peppers in a upright position above the foliage. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, USDA-NRCS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/, Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander SN, 2007. London, UK: Academic Press, Kim S, Park M, Yeom SI, et al. CABI is a registered EU trademark. > 10°C, Cold average temp. On the Volcano of Taal. Welbaum, G. E., 2015. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20113143132 doi:10.1079/9781845936761.0000, Britton NL, 1918. The main purpose of having a scientific name is to have a same name accepted and used worldwide. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/plant/bell-pepper, The World's Healthiest Foods - Bell peppers. http://tropicos.org/Project/CV, Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014. Genetic diversity and structure in semiwild and domesticated chiles (Capsicum annuum; Solanaceae) from Mexico. Bell peppers are used in salads and in cooked dishes and are high in vitamin A and vitamin C. The large furrowed fruits are technically berries and can be green, red, yellow, or orange. The scientific name means “berrylike,” another misnomer, since few of these peppers look like berries. 2) : CABI.xi + 230 pp. The main purpose of having a scientific name is to have a same name accepted and used worldwide. Bell pepper, (Capsicum annuum), also called sweet pepper or capsicum, pepper cultivar in the nightshade family (Solanaceae), grown for its thick, mild fruits. Unfortunately only few cultivars with virus resistances are known. Capsicum baccatum sensu Britton & Millsp., non L. Capsicum hispidum var. Partial resistance has been found. In Asia the species had been introduced to the Philippines by 1888 as it was observed on Taal Volcano near the capital-city Manila; by 1888 it also had Japanese and Chinese local names, indicating that its introduction to those countries would have been sometime before 1888 as well (Tenison-Woods, 1888). glabriusculum in Mexico, possibly multiple times from geographically separate wild populations (Aguilar-Melendez et al., 2009).Capsicum annuum, the genus type species, is often grouped with C. frutescens (chillies, hot or tabasco pepper) as species C. annuum sensu lato. Capsicum: the genus Capsicum [ed. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. annuum (Aguilar-Melendez et al., 2009. Bell pepper, (Capsicum annuum), also called sweet pepper or capsicum, pepper cultivar in the nightshade family (Solanaceae), grown for its thick, mild fruits. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. While the species is not yet reported to be invasive, it is known to be a cultivation escape in Finland and Puerto Rico, and is labelled an agricultural weed in Portugal and western Europe (Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Randall, 2012). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar., St. Louis, Missouri and Antananarivo, USA, Madagascar: Missouri Botanical Garden. Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. Flora of Panama (WFO), Tropicos website. It has been suggested by Pickersgill that C. annuum var. American Journal of Botany, 96(6):1190-1202. http://www.amjbot.org/, Anon, 2007. The scientific name for bell peppers is Capsicum annuum L. Moreover, the color of the pepper determines its ripeness; darker color indicates the content of nutrients it contains as well. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Also called long pepper. D'Arcy & Eshbaugh, Capsicum annuum L. var. Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander S N, 2007. A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar. Corrections? It is known to have escaped cultivation in Finland and is an agricultural weed in western Europe (Randall, 2012). Capsicum peppers tend to tolerate shade conditions up to 45% of prevailing solar radiation, although shade may delay flowering. Primera parte.) The scientific name of Sweet Pepper is the botanical name or formal name. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Leaves alternate, simple, very variable; petiole up to 10 cm long; leaf-blade ovate, up to 10(-16) cm x 5(-8) cm, acuminate at apex, margin usually entire, subglabrous, light to dark green. Capsicum pepper is the most popular and most widely used condiment all over the world. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). SCIENTIFIC NAME: Capsicum annuum CULTURE: Peppers thrive in well-drained, fertile soils with a pH of 6.5. Disclaimer: ITIS taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Bolivia, Tropicos website. Heirloom "California Wonder" Pepper Vegetable Seeds - Sweet Bell PepperHands down, California Wonder is the classic sweet bell pepper. Seeds germinate best at 25-30°C. The major pests are thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), aphids (Myzus persicae), mites, bollworms (Heliothis spp. Although normally considered a self-pollinated crop, outcrossing up to 91% may occur, depending on bee activity and heterostyly. Genome sequence of the hot pepper provides insights into the evolution of pungency in Capsicum species. Several of the pendant varieties that I grow have shapes similar to violas or church bells. Preferred soil type is light, well manured, limey soil, and during rainy seasons well drained and heavy (Basu and De, 2003).Capsicum peppers are considered to be warm season, day-neutral plants, although certain forms may show a photoperiodic reaction. The PLANTS Database. Chemical food safety, CABI.viii + 276 pp. Colour and flavour extracts are used in both the food and feed industries, for example, ginger beer, hot sauces and poultry feed, as well as for some pharmaceutical products. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm, Aguilar-Meléndez A, Azurdia C, Cerén-López J, Menjívar J, Contreras A, 2017. The scientific name of Capsicum is the botanical name or formal name. Capsicum annuum. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 1888:685-810, USDA-APHIS, 1996. C. annuum has a positive economic and health impact. http://plants.usda.gov/, Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014. Alternative Titles: Capsicum, garden pepper Pepper, (genus Capsicum), genus of more than 30 species of flowering plants in the nightshade family (Solanaceae), several of which are extensively cultivated for their edible, often pungent fruits. http://www.tropicos.org/project/mada, USDA-ARS, 2014. Updates? aviculare Dierb. > 10°C, Cold average temp. Cultivated C. annuum is thought to have been domesticated from wild populations of C. annuum var. Capsicum annuum. (2014) recently described fruit morphology of five varieties of C. annuum. Further evaluation of the risk of invasiveness for C. annuum is needed. The species is cultivated in plains, lower hills and valleys in India, at a wider range of altitudes, 0-2100 m (Basu and De, 2003). Final report on the safety assessment of Capsicum annuum extract, Capsicum annuum fruit extract, Capsicum annuum resin, Capsicum annuum fruit powder, Capsicum frutescens fruit, Capsicum frutescens fruit extract, Capsicum frutescens resin, and capsaicin. In: Capsicum: The genus Capsicum [ed. San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico, 382 pp. Scientific name is the name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). > 10°C, Cold average temp. Compendium record. The scientific name of bell peppers is Capsicum annuum, which are characterized by their smooth, glossy exterior of green, red, yellow, purple, or orange colors. The commercial use of the species in skin cosmetic products was recently reviewed in a toxicological risk assessment and found to be safe to humans within the ingredient formulae (Anon, 2007). Soc. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. M T, Berry P, Strong M T, Berry P, Strong M T Berry! Ages, this classic heirloom pepper has set the standard since the late ’. Brown, green & Longman, 351 pp, Hawkes JG, Lester RN, Skelding AD 1979! 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